Epacrid Bibliography

The epacrids are a very conspicuous component of Tasmania’s vegetation. Needless to say there is a rather sizable number of studies done on the epacrids, many involving Tasmanian species. This bibliographical list is very provisional as I am still in the process of collating more information.


Crayn DM, Quinn CJ (1998) Archerieae: A new tribe in Epacridaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 11, 23–24.

Crayn DM, Kron KA, Gadek PA, Quinn CJ (1996) Delimitation of Epacridaceae: preliminary molecular evidence. Annals of Botany 77, 317-321.

Crayn DM, Kron KA, Gadek PA, Quinn CJ (1998) Phylogenetics and evolution of epacrids: a molecular analysis using the plastid gene rbcL with a reappraisal of the position of Lebetanthus. Australian Journal of Botany 46, 187-200.

Crayn DM, Brown EA, Powell JM (2003) A revision of Lissanthe (Styphelioideae: Ericaceae). Australian Systemtic Botany 16, 595–619.

Crowden RK (1986) Two species of genus Epacris (Epacridaceae) from Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 120, 17-19.

  • Here Crowden describes Epacris apsleyensis and E. grandis from the Apsley River area in eastern Tasmania.

Crowden RK, Menadue Y (1990) Morphometric analysis of variation in the ‘Epacris tasmanica complex’ (Epacridaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 3, 253-264.

Curtis WM (1963) The student’s flora of Tasmania. Part 2. Hobart, Australia: A. B. Caudell, Government Printer.

Dormer KJ (1945). Morphology of the vegetative shoot in Epacridaceae. New Phytologist 44, 149–151.

Gilmour CA, Crowden RK, Vaillancourt RE, Koutoulis A (2000) Genetic variation in the Epacris tasmanica complex (Epacridaceae) Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 134, 75-78.

Gilmour CA, Koutoulis A, Crowden RK (2000) Heat shock, smoke and darkness: partner cues in promoting seed germination in Epacris tasmanica (Epacridaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 48, 603-609.

Gray AM (1971) Richea curtisiae (Epacridaceae). Muelleria 2, 143–144.

Jarman SJ, Crowden RK (1973). Unusual anthocyanins from the Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 12, 171–173.

Jarman SJ, Crowden RK (1974). Anthocyanins in the Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 13, 743–750.

Jarman SJ (1975) Experimental taxonomy in the family Epacridaceae. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

Jarman SJ, Crowden RK (1977) An identification key to the Epacridaceae in Tasmania. University of Tasmania Press.

Jarman SJ, Crowden RK (1977). The occurence of flavonol arabinosides in the Epacridaceae.
Phytochemistry 16, 929

Jarman SJ, Mihaich CM (1991) Addition to the Epacridaceae in Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 124, 99-103.

Jordan GJ, Hill RS (1995) Oligocene leaves of Epacridaceae from Little Rapid River, Tasmania and the identification of fossil Epacridaceae leaves. Australian Systematic Botany 8, 71-83.

Jordan GJ, Hill RS (1996) The fossil record of the Epacridaceae. Annals of Botany 77, 341-346.

Jordan GJ, Bromfield KE, Sniderman JMK, Crayn D (2007) Diverse fossil epacrids (Styphelioideae; Ericaceae) from early Pleistocene sediments at Stony Creek Basin, Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168, 1359-1376.

Keith D (1996) Recovery plan – Epacris stuartii Srapf. (Project No. 423). Australian Native Conservation Agency, Canberra, ACT.

Kron KA (1996) Phylogenetic relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal 18s sequence data. Annals of Botany 77, 293-303.

Kron KA, Chase MW  (1993) Systematics of the Ericaceae, Empetraceae, Epacridaceae and related taxa based on rbcL sequence data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80, 735-741.

Kron KA, Judd WS, Stevens PF, Crayn DM, Anderberg AA, Gadek PA, Quinn CJ, Luteyn JL (2002) Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Reviews 68, 335–423.

Ladd PG (2006) Is there wind pollination in the southern heaths (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae)? Botanische Jahrbücher, 127, 57-67.

  • Ladd notes that Richea sprengelioides and R. procera are have features that suggests that they are mainly wind pollinated.

Matthews JM (1965) Warted pollen grains of Epacridaceae. Nature 208, 803-804.

Matthews JM (1966) Some descriptions of the pollen morphology of Epacris Forst, emend. Cav. Pollen et Spores 8, 461-478.

Menadue Y, Crowden RK (1983) Morphological and chemical variation in populations of Richea scoparia and R. angustifolia (Epacridaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 31, 73–84.

Menadue Y, Crowden RK (1991) The taxonomic value of pollen surface patterns in some Australian Epacris (Epacridaceae). In Banks, MR et al. (Eds): Aspects of Tasmanian Botany – A Tribute to Winifred Curtis. Royal Society fo Tasmania: 113-117.

Menadue Y, Crowden RK (2000) Taxonomic revision of Richea R.Br. (Epacridceae). Australian Systematic Botany 13, 773–802.

The authors described Richea alpina from southwest Tasmania as a new species. They further distinguish R. alpina as a discrete species from R. XCurtisiae (putative hybrid of R. coparia and R. pandanifolia) citing differences in plant flavonoid constituency. They did not however give a description of R. XCurtisiae.

Powell JM, Chapman AR, Doust AN (1987) Classification and generic status in the Epacridaceae: a preliminary analysis. Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 53, 70-78.

Powell JM, Crayn DM, Gadek PA, Quinn CJ, Morrison DA, Chapman AR (1996) A re-assessment of relationships within Epacridaceae. Annals of Botany 77, 305-315.

Quinn CJ, Brown EA, Heslewood MM, Crayn DM (2005) Generic concepts in Styphelieae (Ericaceae): the Cyathodes group. Australian Systematic Botany 18, 439-454.

Smith-White S (1955) Chromosome numbers and pollen types in the Epacridaceae. Australian Journal of Botany 3, 48-67.

Smith-White S (1959). Pollen development patterns in the Epacridaceae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 84, 8-35.

Smith-White S (1959). Pollen tetrad segregation in Astroloma pinifolium and in Acrotriche fasciculiflora. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 84, 259-272.

Stace HM, Fripp YJ (1977) Raciation in Epacris impressa. I. Corolla colour and corolla length. Australian Journal of Botany 25, 299-314.

Stace HM, Chapman AR, Lemson KL, Powell JM (1997) Cytoevolution, phylogeny and taxonomy in Epacridaceae. Annals of Botany 79, 283-290.

Stevens PF (1971) A classification of the Ericaceae: subfamilies and tribes. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 64, 1-53.

Stevens PF, Luteyn J, Oliver EGH, Bell TL, Brown EA., Crowden RK, George AS, Jordan G J, Ladd P, Lemson K, McLean CB, Menadue Y, Pate J. S, Stace HM, and Weiller CM. (2004). Ericaceae. Pp. 145-194, in Kubitzki K. (Ed.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VI. Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons. Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Taaffe G, Brown EA, Crayn DM, Gadek PA, Quinn CJ (2001) Generic concepts in Styphelieae: resolving the limits of Leucopogon. Australian Journal of Botany 49, 107–120.

Wagstaff S, Dawson M, Venter S, Munzinger J, Crayn DM, Steane DA and Lemson KL (2009) Origin, diversification, and classification of the Australasian genus Dracophyllum (Richeeae, Ericaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (in press).

  • Tasmanian endemic Dracophyllum milliganii was found to have an enigmatic position with the phylogenetic trees that resulted. It is either a sister to Sphenotoma (a genus not found in Tasmania) or to the Richea/Dracophyllum clade. The genus Richea was analyzed in their dataset too and found to be a polyphyletic group. Some Richea spp. were nested within Dracophyllum.

Watson L (1967) Taxonomic implications of a comparative anatomical study of Epacridaceae. New Phytologist 66, 495-504.

Weiller CM (1996) Reassessment of Cyathodes (Epacridaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 9, 491-507.

Weiller CM (1999) Leptecophylla, a new genus for species formerly included in Cyathodes (Epacridaceae). Muelleria 12, 195–214.

  • These are Leptecophylla abietina (previously Cyathodes abietina), L. juniperica (prev. Cyathodes juniperina) and L. divaricata (prev. C. divaricata).  Two new Tasmanian endemic species L. pogonocalyx and L. pendulosa was described

Weiller CM, Crowden RK, Powell JM (1994). Morphology and taxonomic significance of leaf epicuticular waxes in the Epacridaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 7, 125–152.

Williams KJ, Duncan F (1991) Epacris limbata sp. nov., a localised heath from easter Tasmania. In Banks, MR et al. (Eds): Aspects of Tasmanian Botany – A Tribute to Winifred Curtis. Royal Society fo Tasmania: 95-97.


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